EPHI Brazil – Project Sites

In Brazil, the study is carried out in nine transects distributed in five sites in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient from 1 to 2790 m a.s.l.

Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar – Núcleo Picinguaba

0-400 m a.s.l.

The Parque Estadual Serra do Mar covers 25 municipalities in the state of São Paulo and protects 332 thousand hectares of the Atlantic Forest divided into 10 nucleus, making it the largest conservation unit in this biome. The Núcleo Picinguaba is located in the municipality of Ubatuba. This centre has 47,500 hectares and is composed by different landscapes, protecting areas of restinga, mangroves, beaches, waterfalls and forests. In addition to the importance for the conservation of the Atlantic Forest, this centre is important for the conservation of traditional caiçara and quilombola culture. In this park, activities of sustainable tourism, scientific research and environmental education are also developed.




Fazenda Bananal

0 – 400 m a.s.l.

The Fazenda Bananal was originally a farm in the 17th century that had activities of gold exploration and production of sugar, cachaça and manioc flour. This farm was restored in order to create an educational farm based on agroecology, working for the preservation and child education for a sustainable future. The farm has a total area of 180 hectares, 70% of which are designated for the conservation of the Atlantic Forest. The farm also has a garden, orchard, agro-forest and farm animals, allowing the development of environmental education and sustainable production activities.




Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar –  Núcleo Cunha

950 – 1560 m a.s.l.

The Núcleo Cunha was created in 1977, with the opening of Parque Estadual Serra do Mar. It is located at north of São Paulo State in counties of Cunha and Ubatuba. The park has an area of 13.3 thousand of hectares where there are nebular forest remnants and Araucaria forests. Moreover, the park contributes to the air and weather regulation, protecting the hills, slopes and soils. The main rivers found in the park provide drinking water and electrical energy generation for the surrounding counties. Also, in the park there is a visitor center and scheduled guiding trekking.




Parque Nacional do Itatiaia

540 – 2790 m a.s.l.

Located in the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, the Itatiaia National Park is located in a mosaic of public and private conservation units, covering the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. It presents a rocky mountainous relief, with altitude varying from 600 to 2,791 m (Pico das Agulhas Negras), has an area of 28,084 hectares and covers several forest categories due to the great amplitude of altitudinal variation, the transects are located in the range of 2000 to 2300 m.a.s.l. composed of nebular forest (dense high-montane rain forest), an area with an average of 220 days with mist events per year. The Park area covers springs of 12 important regional hydrographic basins, which drain into two main basins: the Rio Grande, a tributary of the Paraná River, and the Paraíba do Sul river, the most important in Rio de Janeiro.




Instituto Alto Montana

1850 – 2000 m a.s.l.

This private reserve (High Mountain institute) has 672 ha located in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountains, in a landscape with several other conservation units, serving as the buffer zone of the Itatiaia National Park. Originally, this rain forest in the 40-50’s was exploited for wood for coal. In the 40-50’s Subsequently, part of the deforested area was used for low density livestock. In 2007, the new administration defined the use priorities for the place: environmental conservation and preservation, research and education, mountain tourism, mountain sports, sustainable animal and vegetable production. It protects an important forest remnant, in a priority area for the conservation of biodiversity, sheltering many endemic species plants and animal and species threatened with extinction.